1. Environmental issue
1) Climate change(Global warming)
- Around 70% of disasters are climate related
- The Cost of responding to disasters has risen tenfold between 1992 and 2008
- Global temperature have risen by about 0.74°C between 1906 and 2005
- Sea levels have increased about 0.17m for the 20th Century
- Widespread decrease in glaciers: Annual average arctic sea extent has shrunk by 2.7% per decade.
←Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concluded that increases in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations are very likely to have caused most of the increase in global average temperatures
- Air Pollution ←Excessive burning of fossil fuel
- Water Pollution ←Industrial waste, Spraying insecticides and pesticides like DDT
- Soil Pollution←Incorporation of unwanted chemicals in the soil due to human activities: use of insecticides and pesticides, release of industrial waste, mining and deforestation
3) Endocrine disruptor (ED)or Endocrine disrupting chemical(EDC)
- Some chemicals, both naturally released and man-made via industrial activities, may interfere with hormonal systems so they can mimic or partly mimic naturally occurring hormones in the body: they influence the endocrine systems and alter hormonal functions
- Persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), dioxins, DDT, and other chlorine-containing pesticides: 67 kinds of material identified
- Human exposure route
…Contaminated food or water
…Combustion sources from industrial processes and burning of waste
…Chemicals used in consumer products
←Water and Soil Contamination comes from the failure of industrial waste incineration and facility management: ultimately, pollution problem
- Environmental degradation and resource depletion etc.
2. Primary cause of environmental issue
3. CO2 emission from fossil-fuel combustion
1) Human-produced CO2(Greenhouse Gas) emissions
- Burning of fossil fuels like coal, natural gas and oil: 87%
- Clearing of forests and other land use changes: 9%
- Industrial process(Cement and iron manufacturing) 4%
Burning of fossil-fuels such as, coal, oil and natural gas → Greenhouse gas(CO2, Methane, etc) emission →Greenhouse effect
- For every tone of coal burned, 2.5 tones of CO2 are produced
※ Source : Le Quere, C. et al. (2013). The global carbon budget 1959-2011.
2) The three main economic sectors that use fossil fuels
a. Co2 Emissions from fuel combustion
- Electricity and heat generation Sector:41%
- Transportation sector:22%
- Industrial sector (Manufacturing, Construction, mining, agriculture):20%
- Residential and other sectors:16%
※ Source: CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion (2012), International Energy Agency.
b.Electricity and Heat generation is the economic sector that produces the largest amount of man-made Co2 emission
- Almost all industrialized countries get the majority of their electricity from the fossil fuels combustion: 60~90%
- Only Canada and France are the exception
- China : 80% (3,600Billion KWh )of electrical energy produced by burning fossil fuel (2011)
|Electrical Energy Produced By Fossil Fuel Combustion|
|G8 Nation||Fossil Fuel Combustion||Total||%|
|※ Source: International Energy Statistics Database (2011), Energy Information Administration|
4. Solution of environmental issue
Thorium based nuclear energy
Solving environmental issues by changing our energy dependence on fossil fuels such as oil, coal and gas.
- Thorium-based nuclear power is the clean energy without CO2 emission and toxic waste concern.
- Cheap and clean energy highly beneficial for modern industrial activities.
Ex) China decided to concentrate on developing thorium nuclear power for solving serious smog crisis.
Excessive Co2 emission from "Fossil-fuel combustion"
Energy generation from thorium-based nuclear power plant
|CO2 Emission from excessive burning of fossil fuel: Greenhouse effect||
(Air, Water, and Soil pollution)