Environment - Thorium based nuclear power

1. Environmental issue

1) Climate change(Global warming)

- Around 70% of disasters are climate related
- The Cost of responding to disasters has risen tenfold between 1992 and 2008
- Global temperature have risen by about 0.74°C between 1906 and 2005
- Sea levels have increased about 0.17m for the 20th Century
- Widespread decrease in glaciers: Annual average arctic sea extent has shrunk by 2.7% per decade.
←Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concluded that increases in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations are very likely to have caused most of the increase in global average temperatures

2) Pollution

- Air Pollution ←Excessive burning of fossil fuel
- Water Pollution ←Industrial waste, Spraying insecticides and pesticides like DDT
- Soil Pollution←Incorporation of unwanted chemicals in the soil due to human activities: use of insecticides and pesticides, release of industrial waste, mining and deforestation

3) Endocrine disruptor (ED)or Endocrine disrupting chemical(EDC)

- Some chemicals, both naturally released and man-made via industrial activities, may interfere with hormonal systems so they can mimic or partly mimic naturally occurring hormones in the body: they influence the endocrine systems and alter hormonal functions
- Persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), dioxins, DDT, and other chlorine-containing pesticides: 67 kinds of material identified
- Human exposure route
…Contaminated food or water
…Combustion sources from industrial processes and burning of waste
…Chemicals used in consumer products
←Water and Soil Contamination comes from the failure of industrial waste incineration and facility management: ultimately, pollution problem

4) Others

- Environmental degradation and resource depletion etc.
Environmental issue
Whart causes the man-made grennhouse effect?
What is Pollution?
Endoctine Disruptor

2. Primary cause of environmental issue


3. CO2 emission from fossil-fuel combustion

1) Human-produced CO2(Greenhouse Gas) emissions

- Burning of fossil fuels like coal, natural gas and oil: 87%
- Clearing of forests and other land use changes: 9%
- Industrial process(Cement and iron manufacturing) 4%

Burning of fossil-fuels such as, coal, oil and natural gas → Greenhouse gas(CO2, Methane, etc) emission →Greenhouse effect

- For every tone of coal burned, 2.5 tones of CO2 are produced

※ Source : Le Quere, C. et al. (2013). The global carbon budget 1959-2011.

2) The three main economic sectors that use fossil fuels

a. Co2 Emissions from fuel combustion

- Electricity and heat generation Sector:41%
- Transportation sector:22%
- Industrial sector (Manufacturing, Construction, mining, agriculture):20%
- Residential and other sectors:16%

※ Source: CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion (2012), International Energy Agency.

b.Electricity and Heat generation is the economic sector that produces the largest amount of man-made Co2 emission

- Almost all industrialized countries get the majority of their electricity from the fossil fuels combustion: 60~90%
- Only Canada and France are the exception
- China : 80% (3,600Billion KWh )of electrical energy produced by burning fossil fuel (2011)
What are the main sources of carbon dioxide emissions?
Electrical Energy Produced By Fossil Fuel Combustion
(Billion Kilowatthours)
G8 Nation Fossil Fuel Combustion Total %
Canada 136.31 622.98 21.9%
France 44.65 532.57 8.4%
Germany 340.38 567.33 60.0%
Italy 286.35 201.7 70.4%
Japan 759.93 1031.22 73.7%
Russia 668.26 996.82 67.0%
United Kingdom 244.5 342.48 71.4%
United States 2,788.87 4,100.14 68.0%
※ Source: International Energy Statistics Database (2011), Energy Information Administration

4. Solution of environmental issue

Thorium based nuclear energy

Solving environmental issues by changing our energy dependence on fossil fuels such as oil, coal and gas.

- Thorium-based nuclear power is the clean energy without CO2 emission and toxic waste concern.
- Cheap and clean energy highly beneficial for modern industrial activities.
Ex) China decided to concentrate on developing thorium nuclear power for solving serious smog crisis.

Environmental Issue
  1. Climate Change
  2. Pollution (Air, Water, Soil pollution etc)
  3. Endocrine Disruptor(ED)
Primary Causes Excessive Co2 emission from "Fossil-fuel combustion"
  1. Electricity and Heat Generation (Industry sector is the largest energy consumer)
  2. Transportation (Energy- intensive industry)
  3. Industrial sectors (Manufacturing uses the largest amount of fossil fuel in this sector)
Solution Energy generation from thorium-based nuclear power plant
  1. Avoid global warming and zero CO2 emission
  2. Cheap and clean energy highly beneficial for modern industrial activities
  3. Cost effective industrial waste management and disposal facility construction
Environmental Issue Causes Solution
Climate Change
(Global warming)
CO2 Emission from excessive burning of fossil fuel: Greenhouse effect Clean Energy
  1. Zero CO2 emission
  2. Low toxic waste production rate
Cost effective and cheap Energy
  1. Cheap and clean energy highly beneficial for modern industrial activities
Pollution
(Air, Water, and Soil pollution)
  • Fossil-fuel combustion
  • Industrial waste
  • Unwanted chemicals, deforestation and mining
Endocrine disruptor(ED)
  • Water and soil contamination resulted from the failure of industrial waste incineration and facility management
  • Consuming excessive chemicals
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