1. Changing landscape of education

1) Digitized knowledge

a. Most of information and contents are digitized by the advancements in information technology

· Most of information, knowledge, technology, knowhow and culture are converted into digital form and provided
· Easily accessible contents through internet network
· High quality contents for free usable
· Easily sharing and expanding information이

b. Drastic change in the way information is received and exchanged

· Huge amount of digital contents (large chunk of online data): People can run a quick search on the web and dig out pertinent information with just a click away →changing the way people access and obtain information
· Digital media transmits digital contents quite easily and conveniently.
· Digital Media Device →changing the way people access and obtain information and interact with others

2) The advent of Net Generation

a. Net Generations (Digital natives)

· Digital natives have grown up with online and digital devices (Smartphone, Tablet pc), bringing different expectations into the classroom
· Digital natives: Net generations who are exposed to digital technologies from their birth can easily use them.
· Over 50%of the word population is under 30-year-old: That means over 50% of world’s population are digital natives or people with potential digital DNA.

b. For today's net generations, internet, digital technology, and digital devices such as smartphone are their life itself.

· The process of integrating technology into their learning experience is required: Today’s students expect their learning experience to be a collaborative process-a mixture of traditional learning and game like elements.
· At 2008 study conducted at UCLA by Dr. Gary Small: Digital natives used additional areas of the brain that related decision-making when they using digital technology such as web-search. This implicate that exposure to technology actually rewires the brain-the communication paths or neural circuitry that relays information. They prefer video lecture and graphics rather than text.
· Dr. Daphne Bavelier, a cognitive scientist: Game generations are used to receiving visual information really fast.

c. Today’s students want educators to create an environment where they can learn at their own pace, actively seeking out new information and empowering themselves to complete their learning goal.

· The knowledge of teachers is already on the internet and open to all. People can get the vast store of knowledge over that of teachers whenever they want.

3) Educational inequality

· Economic disparities among countries and racial lines: disparity of educational quality and infrastructure
· Residential location and language → Educational inequality between white students and minority students continues to perpetuate social and economic inequality.
· The COVID-19 pandemic → Although schools were closed and online classes spread, numerous poor students were not able to participate in classes at all.

4) Changing learning environment and solutions

Changing learning environment

Changing learning environment and Educational inequality

1. Digitized knowledge & information
· Change in the way people access and obtain knowledge and interact with others
2. The advent of Net Generation (Digital Natives)
3. Educational inequality
· Economic disparities among countries
· Disparity of educational quality and infrastructure
· The COVID-19 pandemic
Solution 1. E-learning (Digital learning)
· Digital technology is an excellent way to transmit educational contents
· The same quality of education is offered for all.
· The new learning experience students want can be provided using technology.
2. Expanded opportunity of free online education with MOOC: mainstream of e-learning
· Removal of Educational inequality
· Contribution to educational efficiency
· Everyone all over the world can take courses from the best institutions for free
3. Construction of global infrastructure: building the internet network all over the world
· Internet network is essential to expand the opportunities of e-learning and MOOCs.
4. The adoption of new media and technologies for efficient e-learning
· Improving efficiency and learning motivation through the adoption of digital technologies.

2. E-Learning

1) E-learning

E-Learning(Electronic learning) is the use of electronic media, educational technology and information and communication technologies(ICT) in Education

· Synonymous with Multimedia learning, Technology-enhanced learning(TEL), Computer-based learning(CBI), Computer-based training(CBT), Computer-assisted instruction(CAI), Internet-based training(IBT), Online education, Virtual education, Virtual learning environments (VLE) or Learning platform, M-learning, Digital education: These alternative names individually emphasize a particular digitization approach, component or delivery method, but conflate to the broad domain of e-learning.
· E-learning can occur in or out of the classroom. It can be self-paced, asynchronous learning or may be instructor-led, synchronous learning.

2) Benefits

a. For self-motivated students, e-learning is the most convenient way to pursue a degree in higher education.

· Students can attain thier degree or learning goal with the flexible and self-paced method of learning.
· Students are free to log on and complete work any time they want.
· Students can work on and complete assignments at the times when they convenient.

b. Open access to education, including access to full degree programs.

c. Better integration for non-full-time students, particularly in continuing education

d. Improved interactions between students and instructors

e. Provision of tools to enable students to independently solve problems

f. Acquisition of technological skills through practice with tools and computers

g. No age-based restrictions on difficulty level, students can go at their own pace.

h. Cost effective

i. Helps students to develop self-discipline


3. MOOC (Massive Open Online Course)


a. An online course aimed at unlimited participation and open access via the web.

· MOOC stands for Massive Open Online Course · Classes are offered to a large number of students, over the internet, for free.
· Everyone all over the world can take courses from the best institutions for free.

b. Purpose

· MOOCs are built on the idea of democratizing education to expand educational opportunities for people all over the world.

c. Evolution of MOOCs

· MIT launched “MIT Open Course Ware” in 2002: Unlike MOOCs, these were not interactive. These didn’t offer live assignments and didn’t evaluate student’s knowledge by tests.
· MOOCs emerged in 2008: Students watch short video lectures online and complete assignments or quizzes that are graded either by machines or by their peers.
- Filmed lectures: online video lectures
- Assignments: Group assignment, Quiz, Test
- Interactive user forums to support community interactions between students, professors, and teaching assistants
- Assessment: Machine-graded multiple-choice quizzes or tests and peer-reviewed written assignments
· Transferable credit systems and certificate programs are also prepared.

2) Characteristics

a. Massiveness

· Moocs easily accommodate large numbers of students.공

b. Openness

· The software used is open-source.
· Registration is open to anyone.
· The curriculum is open.
· The source of information is open.
· The assessment process is open.

c. Principle: Connectivism

· Connectivism values autonomy, diversity, openness, and interactivity.
· MOOCs build on the engagement of learners: active engagement and interaction are key MOOC instructional method.
· Learning and knowledge come from diversity of opinions.

3) Potential benefits

· Can organize or use a MOOC in any setting that has connectivity
· Can organize a MOOC with any language they like
· Can use any online tools which are relevant to target regions or which are already being used by the participants
· Can offer services beyond time zones and physical boundaries
· Can produce and deliver services to participants in short time frame
· Contextualized contents can be shared by all
· Learning happens in a more informal setting, at a place of participant’s convenience and often around their own schedule
· Learning can happen incidentally thanks to the unknown knowledge that pop up as the course participants start to exchange notes on the course’s study
· Can connect across disciplines and institutional walls
· Don’t need a degree to follow the course
· Can enhance personal learning environment and network via participating courses
· Can improve lifelong learning skills

4) Meeting challenges of MOOCs

a. Completion rate: 7~9%

· The biggest problem of MOOC: average MOOC completion rate is 7~9% (data from Coursera)
ex1)Duolingo, a free language learning platform
- Badge Strategy: After completion of learning stages, learners can be awarded with a badge.
- Ranking system with SNS friends: This system can stimulate the competitive spirit of learners and motivate them to learn.
ex2) CodeAcademy website
- An interactive way to learn programming online by actually doing: Inside each lesson is a panel that explains necessary code and instruction. If learners make a mistake, code panels will warn them of errors and provide hints and explanation.

b. Doubts about certificates from MOOCs

· This issue arose from students wanting to showcase their MOOC courses and certificates to employers and practical benefits from finding jobs and careers, far more than self-satisfaction.← MOOC2Degree program: The concept is simple, set up online course that any student anywhere can take online, and then give those participants credit toward a degree if they subsequently enroll as an actual student after successfully completing the course.
- Public Universities such as Arizona State University and University of Cincinnati etc.are offering MOOC2Degree programs.
- Georgia Tech partnered with Udacity decided to launch a MOOC-based master’s program: This is a computer science master degree delivered through MOOCs for $7,000(1/6th of normal tuition fee).
- The School’s on-campus computer science master’s degree cost about $45,000 in tuition ← Online coures + Time on campus = a new path to an MIT master's degree
- MIT announced today a pilot program allowing learners worldwide to take a semester’s worth of courses in its top-ranked, one-year Supply Chain Management (SCM) master’s program completely online, then complete an MIT master’s degree by spending a single semester on campus.MIT also announced a new academic credential for the digital age: the “MicroMaster’s,” which can be earned through MITx by students who pass a comprehensive examination upon the successful completion of the same semester’s worth of online SCM courses.
- Learners worldwide with access to edX can take any of the first semester’s worth of courses online. Those who do well in each course, and then score well on a subsequent comprehensive proctored examination, can earn an MITx MicroMaster’s, and their performance will significantly enhance their chances of being accepted to the full master’s program, which they can then complete in a single semester on campus.
Online courses + time on campus = a new path to an MIT master's degree

5) MOOC Platforms

a. Udacity

· The world’s first MOOC Platform established in 2012
· Founded by Sebastian Thrun, a Research Professor of Computer Science at Stanford University.
· Focused on computer-science and technical skills
· Nanodegrees program: Udacity’s credential courses produced and recognized by industry leaders

b. Coursera

· Founded by computer science professors Daphne Koller and Andrew Ng from Stanford University
· The leading MOOC platform in the western U.S.
· Mission: “We provide universal access to the world’s best education”
· In 2014, 956courses are offered to over 10million courserians
· Focused on mainly humanities, business and computer science

c. edX

· Founded by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University in 2012.
· EdX offers interactive online classes from the world's best universities such as MITx, HarvardX, BerkeleyX, UTx and many other universities
· Topics include biology, business, chemistry, computer science, economics, finance, electronics, engineering, food and nutrition, history, humanities, law, literature, math, medicine, music, philosophy, physics, science, statistics and more
· Known for offering the highest quality courses
· Fee-based professional education courses offers students continuing education and more highly qualified lecture than basic courses.

d. Khan Academy

· Salmon Khan, an educator (majoring in electrical engineering and computer science) from India, began tutoring his cousin in 2004.
· Khan Academy started from delivering his tutorials on You Tube for practical purpose
· Thousands of courses are prepared for K-12 students different from other MOOC platform

e. UM’s Online high School

· In November 2012, the University of Miami launched its first high school MOOC as part of Global Academy, its online high school. This course became available for high school students preparing for the SAT subject Test in biology

6) Attention from big companies

a. AT&T, Facebook, Google, Cloudera, Salesforce, MongoDB, Autodesk, and Hack Reactor

· Nanodegrees program: Udacity’s credential courses produced and recognized by industry leaders(AT&T, Facebook, Google, Cloudera, Salesforce, mongoDB, Autodesk, and Hack Reactor)
· AT&T announced that they committed to offering 100 internships to students who pursue or obtain these nanodegrees

b. Google

· Building the curriculum with Udacity
· Introducing the way to build an Android app: Mapping, Web access etc.

c. Linkedin(Linkedin)

· In partnerships with Coursera, edX,, Pearson, Skillsoft, Udacity, and Udemy, linkedIn has launced the service to allow users to add mooc certifications to their profiles

4. Internet penetration project

1) Global Internet penetration status

a. Global Network Environment: There will be 5.3 billion total Internet users (66 percent of global population) by 2023, up from 3.9 billion (51 percent of global population) in 2018.

Cisco Annual Internet Report (2018–2023) White Paper

b. New Internet penetration policy in major countries

· US: Biden's $100 billion plan to improve internet access
· EU: Promoting high-speed Internet access to all European households by 2030
· Implementation of 'Internet Plus' Policy to promote High-Speed internet distribution and information utilization
· India: Promoting 'Digital India' Policy to improve internet connection
강대국은 지금 초고속 인터넷망 깔기 전쟁

2) Internet network construction project by Facebook

a., an internet penetration project started from 2013 is a global partnership between SNS company Facebook and six global leading mobile technology companies(Samsung, Ericsson, MediaTek, Nokia, Opera Software, and Qualcomm).

· The goal of is to make internet access available to the two-thirds of the world who are not yet connected, and to bring the same opportunities to everyone that the connected third of the world has today.

b. To achieve the above mentioned goal, will focus on three challenges in developing countries

· Making access affordable: Partners will collaborate to develop and adopt technologies that make mobile connectivity more affordable and decrease the cost of delivering data to people worldwide
· Data efficiency: Partners will invest in tools that dramatically reduce the amount of data required to use most apps and internet experiences.
· Business Model: Partners will support development of sustainable new business models and services that make it easier for people to access the internet
- Testing new business model that align incentives for mobile operators, device manufacturers, developers and other businesses to provide more affordable access than has previously been possible
- Localizing service working with operating system providers and other partners to enable more languages on mobile devices

c. Connecting the World by Facebook

· Providing Application: To bring more people online and help them discover valuable services, will provide free basic services via the app. With this app, people can browse a set of useful basic services such as health, employment and local information without data charges. The app will be available first to Airtel subscriber in Zambia.
· Facebook bought a UK-based company, Ascenta, which is designing high-altitude, solar powered drones and established the Connectivity Lab composed of the world’s top experts in aerospace and communications technology from NASA and Ascenta. The Connectivity Lab is doing to build drones, satellites and lasers to improve and expand the internet access.
· In July 2015, Connectivity Lab team announced two major milestones
- A full-scale version of Aquila — the high-altitude, long-endurance aircraft designed by our aerospace team in the UK — is now complete and ready for flight testing. Aquila has the wingspan of a 737 but weighs hundreds of times less, thanks to its unique design and carbon-fiber frame. When deployed, it will be able to circle a remote region for up to 90 days, beaming connectivity down to people from an altitude of 60,000 to 90,000 feet.
- Our laser communications team in Woodland Hills, California, has achieved a significant performance breakthrough. They’ve designed and lab-tested a laser that can deliver data at 10s of Gb per second — approximately 10x faster than the previous state-of-the-art in the industry — to a target the size of a dime from more than 10 miles away. We are now starting to test these lasers in real-world conditions. When finished, our laser communications system can be used to connect our aircraft with each other and with the ground, making it possible to create a stratospheric network that can extend to even the remotest regions of the world. by Facebook
Announcing the Connectivity Lab at Facebook
Connectivity Lab: Mark Zuckerberg Proposes 'Drones, Satellites And Lasers' To Beam Internet To Those Without It
New Milestones in Connectivity Lab’s Aircraft and Laser Programs

2) Google Fiber & Project Loon

a. Google Fiber: Google’s fiber-to-the premises service in the United States

· Super fast internet: up to 100 times faster than today's average broadband speeds
· Affordable service: The 1Gigbit internet option service offered by Google Fiber includes one terabyte of Google Drive service at the price of $70 per month

b. Project Loon: The project for people in rural and remote areas and who don’t have reliable access to the internet

· By floating balloons in the stratosphere, twice as high as airplanes, it is possible to patch internet connectivity gaps around the world with a string of networked balloons
· In June 2013, project Loon began with a pilot test in New Zealand. In 2014, it will continue to expand the pilot, with the goal of establishing a ring of uninterrupted connectivity at latitudes of 40degree in the Southern Hemisphere, so that pilot testers in these latitudes can receive continuous service via balloon-powered internet
· Google acquire “Titan Aerospace“, a startup that makes its own solar-powered drones

c. Google’s satellite plan

- Satellites launching project to make internet access available in unwired parts of world
- This project plans to launch 180 small satellites that orbit lower than typical satellites.
Google fiber
Loon for all
Google to launch 180 satellites in $1bn plan to cover the unwired

3) Amazon’s the Project Kuiper

a. Project Kuiper : New satellite based commercial Internet service

· Amazon is joining the race to provide broadband internet access service.
· Amazon lays out the plan, code-named Project Kuiper, to put 3,236 satellites in low Earth orbit — including 784 satellites at an altitude of 367 miles (590 kilometers); 1,296 satellites at a height of 379 miles (610 kilometers); and 1,156 satellites in 391-mile (630-kilometer) orbits.
· Amazon said the satellites would provide data coverage for spots on Earth ranging in latitude from 56 degrees north to 56 degrees south. About 95 percent of the world’s population lives within that wide swath of the planet.
· The goal of the project is to bring connectivity to underserved parts of the world. “This is a long-term project that envisions serving ten thousands of people who lack basic access to broadband internet”.
· Amazon’s Project Kuiper will launch two satellites by Q4 2022 on ABL Space Systems' all-new RS1 rocket.
아마존도 한다...세계 위성인터넷망 3파전으로
Amazon to offer broadband access from orbit with 3,236-satellite ‘project Kuiper’ constellation
Project Kuiper announces plans and launch provider for prototype satellites

4) Space X’s Starlink project

a. Starlink project: Elon Musk’s satellite internet aspirations

· Starlink aims to provide satellite broadband to customers around the globe.
· A landmark launch and deploy puts the first 60 satellites into orbit, beginning the master plan of delivering internet to the world: Musk said six more launches of 60 satellites each will be necessary “for initial activation”, and 12 more to provide “significant coverage".
SpaceX launches first satellites in massive Starlink project to beam internet access from space
Elon Musk shows off SpaceX’s 60 internet-beaming satellites packed together for launch

5) OneWeb‘s mega-constellation project

a. Mega –constellation Project: connecting huge swathes of the earth that don’t make sense for fiber

· The first six satellites for OneWeb's mega-constellation have launched on a Soyuz rocket from French Guiana.
· OneWeb CEO Adrian Stechel told BBC News “We're going to start by focusing on connecting schools, connecting boats, connecting planes, and connecting huge swathes of the planet that don't make sense for fibre."
· Global big companies such as chip-maker Qualcomm, Sir Richard Branson's Virgin Group, drinks giant Coca-Cola, satellite communications specialist Hughes, and tech financier SoftBank.are backing OneWeb.
OneWeb launches mega-constellation pathfinder satellites

5. New media and technologies for education

Estimated time of new technologies adoption by Horizon Report

Horizon Report issued by the NMC (New Media Consortium), an international not-for-profit consortium of more than 250 colleges and learning-focused organizations, introduces the landscape of emerging technologies for teaching, learning, and creative inquiry.
Time-to -adoption NMC Horizon Report 2014 Global K-12Edition NMC Horizon Report 2014School Edition NMC Horizon Report 2014 Global Higher Education
One year or less Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) Cloud Computing Tablet Computing Flipped Classroom Learning Analytics
Two to Three Years Game and Gamification Learning Analytics Game and Gamification Mobile Learning 3D Printing Game and Gamification
Four to Five Years The Internet of Things Wearable Technology Personalized Learning Virtual and Remote Quantified Self Virtual Assistants

a. Bring Your Own Technology (BYOD)

· It refers to the practice of people(students) bringing their own laptops or mobile devices with them to the learning or work environment.

b. Cloud Computing

· Many institutions use software as a Service(Saas) and API services in the cloud to reduce IT overhead costs. Google Apps has become a popular choice for school.
· Over the past five years, the use of cloud services has grown rapidly, making digital strategies such as BYOD, the flipped classroom, and personalized and collaborative learning environments straightforward technologically.

c. Game and Gamification

· Game and game-based learning. The idea is to integrate game-like elements including quests, experience points, leader boards, milestones, and badging into non-game environments./h5>
ex) Classcraft: 11th grade students at Le Salesien High School in Quebec, are studying physics as warriors, mages, and healers in a digital role-playing game called Classcraft.

d. Learning Analytics

· Analytics that can reveal patterns in learning- related data that could be used to improve learning both for individual students, and across institutions and systems.
ex) Itslearning platform provides Flint High School in the UK with course dashboards that enable both teachers and students to get quick assessments of learning inside and outside of the classroom.

e. Flipped Classroom

· It is a form of blended learning in which students learn content online by watching video lectures, usually at home, and homework is done in class with teachers and students discussing and solving questions. Teacher interaction with students is more personalized - guidance instead of lecturing.
· This is part of a larger pedagogical movement that overlap with blended learning, inquiry-based learning, and other instructional approaches that are meant to be flexible, active, and more engaging for students
· Increasingly popular in higher education institutions

f. Internet of Things

· It is already being used in informal learning settings, such as museums, where staffs monitor the conditions of paintings and ancient artifacts in real-time through sensors.

g. Wearable Technology

· This technology refers to devices that can be worn by users, taking the form of accessory or actual items of clothing and shoes. Rapidly growing category is linked to the “quantified self”.

h. 3D Printing

· Technologies that construct physical objects from3D Modeling Software, CAD,CAT
· Anthropology students at Miami University can study replicas of fragile artifacts, like ancient Egyptian vase, that have been scanned and printed at the 3D printing lab. /h5>

i. Virtual Assistants

· Virtual Assistants employ artificial intelligence and natural language processing to provide people with support for a wide range of daily activities, such as discerning the best driving routes, arranging trip itineraries.
· Siri, Google Now etc.
NMC Horizon Report 2014 Global K-12Edition